How to Create Your Own Git Server
Although I'm a happy (also paying) user of GitHub's offerings, there are times when I prefer to host a private repository on a server I control. Setting up your own Git server can be useful if you're isolated from the public internet, if you're subject to inflexible regulations, or if you simply want features different from those offered by GitHub (and other similar providers). Setting up a Git server on a Unix (Linux, Mac OS X, *BSD, Solaris, AIX) machine isn't difficult, but there are many details to observe. Here is a complete guide.
Through the following steps you can setup and use your own
Git server at a server, say
Some of the steps,
like email notifications, users with a restricted shell, and
access control for a particular group,
are optional depending on your requirements and the situation at hand.
For many of the commands you will need administrator (root) privileges,
so prefix them with
sudo or (heaven forbid) run them
from within a root shell.
Create a group for those who will have read/write access to the repository.
Depending on your operating system you can do this using the
vigrto edit the group file, or editing directly the file
/etc/group. In the end you want to have a line like the following in the
repogroupis the name of the group that will get access to the specific repository, 10005 is a unique group identification number, and
marry,john,violetare the user identifiers of people that will get access to the repository.
Decide the directory where the git repositories will be located.
This can be under your home directory (e.g.
/home/yourname/gitroot) or in a dedicated directory (e.g.
Configure permissions so that git users can access that directory
chmod g+rx /path-to/gitroot chown :grouprepo /path-to/gitroot
Create the new Git repository, say
cd /path-to/gitroot git init --bare newrepo.git
Setup the directory's permissions to allow and propagate group access,
and configure Git accordingly.
cd newrepo.git chown -R :grouprepo . git config core.sharedRepository group find . -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 2770 find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod g=u
Configure commit email notifications, so that developers will receive an
email with a summary of the changes when these are pushed to the repository.
echo 'One-line project description' >description git config --local hooks.mailinglist email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org,... git config --local hooks.emailprefix '[DI-PR] ' git config --local hooks.showrev "git show -C %s; echo" git config --local hooks.emailmaxlines 100
Setup a so-called hook to create these email notifications.
cd hooks cp post-receive.sample post-receive chmod +x post-receive
Remove the comment character
#from the last line of the
post-receivescript, so that it will be as follows.
Prime your repository with a file.
This is needed in order to avoid confusing your other users
with a strange error message on their first commit.
cd to-your-personal-working-directory git clone myhost.example.com:/path-to/gitroot/newrepo.git echo "Short project description" >README.txt git add README.txt git commit -a -m "Add README file" git push origin master # This first time only "origin master" args needed
Create accounts for the repository's other users.
Depending on your system you can do this with a command like
Set the users to access your host with a public/private key pair.
This involves the following steps.
- Users who already have such a key pair, just need to send you their public key.
Users who don't have a key pair,
must generate one using the command
ssh-keygen(accepting the default responses), and send you the file
You must then install that key under their account
by copying the public key they sent you into your clipboard,
and running the following command sequence.
sudo su - username mkdir -p .ssh cat >>.ssh/authorized_keys <<\EOF paste-key-as-one-line EOF exit
Change user accounts to use a restricted shell.
If you want the users you added to use your system only for Git,
and not for general-purpose Unix processing,
then set up their accounts to use Git's restricted shell.
Git provides such a restricted shell crafted exactly for the purpose
of running only its server-end part.
It is usually installed in
/usr/local/libexec/git-core/git-shell. Therefore, for each user you want to offer restricted access run a command like the following.
sudo chsh -s /usr/libexec/git-core/git-shell username
Ask your users to clone the repository using a command like the following.
git clone myhost.example.com:/path-to/gitroot/newrepo.git